Core Concepts for the Civil PE Exam:

Structural Depth

Civil Morning Breadth and PE Structural Exam Practice Problems and Quick Reference Manual 

PE Exam - Structural Depth

  • PE Core Concepts PE Structural Exam Review & Quick Reference Guide designed to break down the specific information needed for the exam on every topic from the NCEES Syllabus

  • Comprehensive PE Civil Engineering Structural Practice Exam​.

  • 40 Civil Breadth practice problems with detailed solutions

  • 80 Structural Depth practice problems with detailed solutions

  • Breakdown of all NCEES listed codes including ACI, AISC, IBC, ASCE, Masonry design, NDS, AASHTO, OSHA, and PCI 

  • Available in Paperback for $34.95 or access all of our practice questions Online Only for $24.99 

Structural Depth Online Study Guide
Click the topics below to expand the core concepts. This material is included in the Paperback edition

ASCE

Introduction to Bridges


Parts of a bridge include:

  • Foundation – Structural members used to transfer load to the supporting soil.
  • Substructure – Structural parts that support the horizontal span
  • Superstructure – Structural parts which provide the horizontal span




Limit States and Load Factors


Load factors and load combinations are handled differently in AASHTO. Different loading conditions are represented by Limit States. Some examples are Strength I, Strength III, and Service I. The load factors vary in magnitude depending on which limit state is applied. The load factors are then multiplied by the various types of loads. The Load Factors are found in Tables 3.4.1-1 and 3.4.1-2.




Live Load Distribution


Live load on bridges is not distributed evenly to girders. Live load distribution provides a more appropriate distribution based on girder spacing, deck thickness, type of bridge etc. The applicable cross sections are from Table 4.6.2.2.1-1

Then the appropriate equation on pages 4-37 through 4-45 determines the distribution of load. Be aware of the appropriate mode of failure and whether the beam is interior or exterior





AASHTO

Introduction to Bridges


Parts of a bridge include:

  • Foundation – Structural members used to transfer load to the supporting soil.
  • Substructure – Structural parts that support the horizontal span
  • Superstructure – Structural parts which provide the horizontal span




Limit States and Load Factors


Load factors and load combinations are handled differently in AASHTO. Different loading conditions are represented by Limit States. Some examples are Strength I, Strength III, and Service I. The load factors vary in magnitude depending on which limit state is applied. The load factors are then multiplied by the various types of loads. The Load Factors are found in Tables 3.4.1-1 and 3.4.1-2.




Live Load Distribution


Live load on bridges is not distributed evenly to girders. Live load distribution provides a more appropriate distribution based on girder spacing, deck thickness, type of bridge etc. The applicable cross sections are from Table 4.6.2.2.1-1

Then the appropriate equation on pages 4-37 through 4-45 determines the distribution of load. Be aware of the appropriate mode of failure and whether the beam is interior or exterior





ACI

Flexure


Moment capacity in concrete beams is based on the tension in the member being equal to the compression. The moment capacity then is the area of steel multiplied by the strength of steel multiplied by the distance from the steel centroid to the centroid of the compression block. Therefore:

As = area of steel (in2)

Fy = yield strength of steel (ksi)

d = depth of tension steel (in)

a = depth of compression block (in)

And since Tension = Compression

Asfy = 0.85f’cba, and therefore a = Asfy/(0.85f’cb)

This is represented in the diagram below:

The minimum reinforcing in a concrete beam is the larger of the following two equations:

The maximum reinforcing does not have a simple equation but is a function of limiting the strain in the steel so that the mode of failure is not crushing of the concrete. This is done by setting the strain of steel to 0.005. Therefore:




Shear


The shear capacity of a concrete beam is the addition of the shear strength of the concrete and the reinforcing stirrups. Therefore:

s = spacing of stirrups (in)

Av = Area of vertical stirrups (in2). Note: the cross section for shear often includes multiple vertical bars. Av is the total area of all vertical legs

Spacing shall not be greater than = Avfy/50bw




Two-Way Shear





Axial


ACI also provides limits for the reinforcing of members in compression:

  • Code Requirements for columns:
    • Minimum Longitudinal steel > 0.01Ag
    • Maximum Longitudinal steel < 0.08Ag
    • Minimum Number of Bars:
      • 4 for rectangular ties
      • 3 for triangular ties
      • 6 for spiral ties
    • Minimum size tie is #3 for #10 bars and smaller, #4 for #10 bars and larger
  • Center to center tie spacing shall not be greater than:
    • 16(longitudinal bar diameter)
    • 48(tie diameter)
    • Least dimension of the column




Reinforcing Development and Details






AISC

Weld Symbols and Types






NDS

Weld Symbols and Types






ACI 530 Masonry

Weld Symbols and Types






PCI

Weld Symbols and Types






OSHA

Weld Symbols and Types






IBC

Flexure


Moment capacity in concrete beams is based on the tension in the member being equal to the compression. The moment capacity then is the area of steel multiplied by the strength of steel multiplied by the distance from the steel centroid to the centroid of the compression block. Therefore:

As = area of steel (in2)

Fy = yield strength of steel (ksi)

d = depth of tension steel (in)

a = depth of compression block (in)

And since Tension = Compression

Asfy = 0.85f’cba, and therefore a = Asfy/(0.85f’cb)

This is represented in the diagram below:

The minimum reinforcing in a concrete beam is the larger of the following two equations:

The maximum reinforcing does not have a simple equation but is a function of limiting the strain in the steel so that the mode of failure is not crushing of the concrete. This is done by setting the strain of steel to 0.005. Therefore:




Shear


The shear capacity of a concrete beam is the addition of the shear strength of the concrete and the reinforcing stirrups. Therefore:

s = spacing of stirrups (in)

Av = Area of vertical stirrups (in2). Note: the cross section for shear often includes multiple vertical bars. Av is the total area of all vertical legs

Spacing shall not be greater than = Avfy/50bw




Two-Way Shear





Axial


ACI also provides limits for the reinforcing of members in compression:

  • Code Requirements for columns:
    • Minimum Longitudinal steel > 0.01Ag
    • Maximum Longitudinal steel < 0.08Ag
    • Minimum Number of Bars:
      • 4 for rectangular ties
      • 3 for triangular ties
      • 6 for spiral ties
    • Minimum size tie is #3 for #10 bars and smaller, #4 for #10 bars and larger
  • Center to center tie spacing shall not be greater than:
    • 16(longitudinal bar diameter)
    • 48(tie diameter)
    • Least dimension of the column




Reinforcing Development and Details






AWS

Weld Symbols and Types






Advanced Statics

Weld Symbols and Types






Misc. Structural Topics

Flexure


Moment capacity in concrete beams is based on the tension in the member being equal to the compression. The moment capacity then is the area of steel multiplied by the strength of steel multiplied by the distance from the steel centroid to the centroid of the compression block. Therefore:

As = area of steel (in2)

Fy = yield strength of steel (ksi)

d = depth of tension steel (in)

a = depth of compression block (in)

And since Tension = Compression

Asfy = 0.85f’cba, and therefore a = Asfy/(0.85f’cb)

This is represented in the diagram below:

The minimum reinforcing in a concrete beam is the larger of the following two equations:

The maximum reinforcing does not have a simple equation but is a function of limiting the strain in the steel so that the mode of failure is not crushing of the concrete. This is done by setting the strain of steel to 0.005. Therefore:




Shear


The shear capacity of a concrete beam is the addition of the shear strength of the concrete and the reinforcing stirrups. Therefore:

s = spacing of stirrups (in)

Av = Area of vertical stirrups (in2). Note: the cross section for shear often includes multiple vertical bars. Av is the total area of all vertical legs

Spacing shall not be greater than = Avfy/50bw




Two-Way Shear





Axial


ACI also provides limits for the reinforcing of members in compression:

  • Code Requirements for columns:
    • Minimum Longitudinal steel > 0.01Ag
    • Maximum Longitudinal steel < 0.08Ag
    • Minimum Number of Bars:
      • 4 for rectangular ties
      • 3 for triangular ties
      • 6 for spiral ties
    • Minimum size tie is #3 for #10 bars and smaller, #4 for #10 bars and larger
  • Center to center tie spacing shall not be greater than:
    • 16(longitudinal bar diameter)
    • 48(tie diameter)
    • Least dimension of the column




Reinforcing Development and Details






 
 
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