Core Concepts for the Civil PE Exam:

Structural Depth

Civil Morning Breadth and PE Structural Exam Practice Problems and Quick Reference Manual 

PE Exam - Structural Depth

  • PE Core Concepts PE Structural Exam Review & Quick Reference Guide designed to break down the specific information needed for the exam on every topic from the NCEES Syllabus

  • Comprehensive PE Civil Engineering Structural Practice Exam​.

  • 40 Civil Breadth practice problems with detailed solutions

  • 80 Structural Depth practice problems with detailed solutions

  • Breakdown of all NCEES listed codes including ACI, AISC, IBC, ASCE, Masonry design, NDS, AASHTO, OSHA, and PCI 

  • Available in Paperback for $34.95 or access all of our practice questions Online Only for $24.99 

Structural Depth Online Study Guide
Click the topics below to expand the core concepts. This material is included in the Paperback edition

ASCE

Sawn Lumber


Wood Design consists of finding the allowable design stress for each mode of failure by multiplying the reference stress by the appropriate adjustment factors to find the design allowable stress. The breakdown for sawn lumber and structurally glued members is in Tables 4.3.1 and 5.3.1 respectively.




Structural Glued Laminated





Connections


Connections are similar to other modes of failure in which the reference value is multiplied by adjustment factors to determine the design allowable stress. Dowel Type Fastener (bolts, lag screws, wood screws, nails, spikes, drift bolts, drift pins) stresses are determined from Table 11.3.1

For Lateral Loads:

Z’ = Z x CD CM Ct Cg CD Ceg Cdi Ctn

Withdrawal

W’ = W x CDCM2CtCegCtn

CD = Duration Factor 11.3.2

CM = Wet Service Factor 11.3.3

Ct = Temperature Factor 11.3.4

Cg = Group Action Factor 11.3.6

CD = Geometry Factor 12.5.1

Ceg = End Grain Factor 12.5.2

Cdi = Diaphragm Factor 12.5.3

Ctn = Toe Nail Factor 12.5.4





AASHTO

Introduction to Bridges


Parts of a bridge include:

  • Foundation – Structural members used to transfer load to the supporting soil.
  • Substructure – Structural parts that support the horizontal span
  • Superstructure – Structural parts which provide the horizontal span




Limit States and Load Factors


Load factors and load combinations are handled differently in AASHTO. Different loading conditions are represented by Limit States. Some examples are Strength I, Strength III, and Service I. The load factors vary in magnitude depending on which limit state is applied. The load factors are then multiplied by the various types of loads. The Load Factors are found in Tables 3.4.1-1 and 3.4.1-2.




Live Load Distribution


Live load on bridges is not distributed evenly to girders. Live load distribution provides a more appropriate distribution based on girder spacing, deck thickness, type of bridge etc. The applicable cross sections are from Table 4.6.2.2.1-1

Then the appropriate equation on pages 4-37 through 4-45 determines the distribution of load. Be aware of the appropriate mode of failure and whether the beam is interior or exterior





ACI

Introduction to Bridges


Parts of a bridge include:

  • Foundation – Structural members used to transfer load to the supporting soil.
  • Substructure – Structural parts that support the horizontal span
  • Superstructure – Structural parts which provide the horizontal span




Limit States and Load Factors


Load factors and load combinations are handled differently in AASHTO. Different loading conditions are represented by Limit States. Some examples are Strength I, Strength III, and Service I. The load factors vary in magnitude depending on which limit state is applied. The load factors are then multiplied by the various types of loads. The Load Factors are found in Tables 3.4.1-1 and 3.4.1-2.




Live Load Distribution


Live load on bridges is not distributed evenly to girders. Live load distribution provides a more appropriate distribution based on girder spacing, deck thickness, type of bridge etc. The applicable cross sections are from Table 4.6.2.2.1-1

Then the appropriate equation on pages 4-37 through 4-45 determines the distribution of load. Be aware of the appropriate mode of failure and whether the beam is interior or exterior





AISC

Introduction to Bridges


Parts of a bridge include:

  • Foundation – Structural members used to transfer load to the supporting soil.
  • Substructure – Structural parts that support the horizontal span
  • Superstructure – Structural parts which provide the horizontal span




Limit States and Load Factors


Load factors and load combinations are handled differently in AASHTO. Different loading conditions are represented by Limit States. Some examples are Strength I, Strength III, and Service I. The load factors vary in magnitude depending on which limit state is applied. The load factors are then multiplied by the various types of loads. The Load Factors are found in Tables 3.4.1-1 and 3.4.1-2.




Live Load Distribution


Live load on bridges is not distributed evenly to girders. Live load distribution provides a more appropriate distribution based on girder spacing, deck thickness, type of bridge etc. The applicable cross sections are from Table 4.6.2.2.1-1

Then the appropriate equation on pages 4-37 through 4-45 determines the distribution of load. Be aware of the appropriate mode of failure and whether the beam is interior or exterior





NDS

Sawn Lumber


Wood Design consists of finding the allowable design stress for each mode of failure by multiplying the reference stress by the appropriate adjustment factors to find the design allowable stress. The breakdown for sawn lumber and structurally glued members is in Tables 4.3.1 and 5.3.1 respectively.




Structural Glued Laminated





Connections


Connections are similar to other modes of failure in which the reference value is multiplied by adjustment factors to determine the design allowable stress. Dowel Type Fastener (bolts, lag screws, wood screws, nails, spikes, drift bolts, drift pins) stresses are determined from Table 11.3.1

For Lateral Loads:

Z’ = Z x CD CM Ct Cg CD Ceg Cdi Ctn

Withdrawal

W’ = W x CDCM2CtCegCtn

CD = Duration Factor 11.3.2

CM = Wet Service Factor 11.3.3

Ct = Temperature Factor 11.3.4

Cg = Group Action Factor 11.3.6

CD = Geometry Factor 12.5.1

Ceg = End Grain Factor 12.5.2

Cdi = Diaphragm Factor 12.5.3

Ctn = Toe Nail Factor 12.5.4





ACI 530 Masonry

Bending





Compression






PCI

Sawn Lumber


Wood Design consists of finding the allowable design stress for each mode of failure by multiplying the reference stress by the appropriate adjustment factors to find the design allowable stress. The breakdown for sawn lumber and structurally glued members is in Tables 4.3.1 and 5.3.1 respectively.




Structural Glued Laminated





Connections


Connections are similar to other modes of failure in which the reference value is multiplied by adjustment factors to determine the design allowable stress. Dowel Type Fastener (bolts, lag screws, wood screws, nails, spikes, drift bolts, drift pins) stresses are determined from Table 11.3.1

For Lateral Loads:

Z’ = Z x CD CM Ct Cg CD Ceg Cdi Ctn

Withdrawal

W’ = W x CDCM2CtCegCtn

CD = Duration Factor 11.3.2

CM = Wet Service Factor 11.3.3

Ct = Temperature Factor 11.3.4

Cg = Group Action Factor 11.3.6

CD = Geometry Factor 12.5.1

Ceg = End Grain Factor 12.5.2

Cdi = Diaphragm Factor 12.5.3

Ctn = Toe Nail Factor 12.5.4





OSHA

General Requirements


Some main concepts include:

  • Excavation Safety: Except for excavations in rock, anything deeper than 5 ft must be stabilized to prevent cave-in. This may be achieved by providing appropriate earth retention systems or sloping at appropriate rates. This is determined by the depth of excavation, soil type, and other requirements. 1926 Subpart P – Excavations

  • Fall protection: Drop-offs must be protected from fall based on the height of the drop. Some examples of protection include temporary fences, nets, or lifelines. 1910 Subpart D – Walking Working Surfaces and 1926 Subpart M – Fall Protection

  • Power Line Hazards: For power lines which are electrified, all construction activities must be a minimum distance from the lines. This is based on the voltage of the lines. Typically the safe operational distance is 10 ft. for lines less than 50 kV and typically 35 ft. for lines greater than 50 kV. 1926 Subpart V – Electric Power Transmission and Distribution

  • Confined Spaces: Anyone required to enter confined spaces must be appropriately trained and equipped. Oxygen must be monitored and kept at an acceptable level. Subpart AA – Confined Spaces

  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Equipment required by any personnel present on a job site. Examples are acceptable head protection and steel toed shoes. 1910 Subpart I – Personal Protective Equipment





IBC

Sawn Lumber


Wood Design consists of finding the allowable design stress for each mode of failure by multiplying the reference stress by the appropriate adjustment factors to find the design allowable stress. The breakdown for sawn lumber and structurally glued members is in Tables 4.3.1 and 5.3.1 respectively.




Structural Glued Laminated





Connections


Connections are similar to other modes of failure in which the reference value is multiplied by adjustment factors to determine the design allowable stress. Dowel Type Fastener (bolts, lag screws, wood screws, nails, spikes, drift bolts, drift pins) stresses are determined from Table 11.3.1

For Lateral Loads:

Z’ = Z x CD CM Ct Cg CD Ceg Cdi Ctn

Withdrawal

W’ = W x CDCM2CtCegCtn

CD = Duration Factor 11.3.2

CM = Wet Service Factor 11.3.3

Ct = Temperature Factor 11.3.4

Cg = Group Action Factor 11.3.6

CD = Geometry Factor 12.5.1

Ceg = End Grain Factor 12.5.2

Cdi = Diaphragm Factor 12.5.3

Ctn = Toe Nail Factor 12.5.4





AWS

Introduction to Bridges


Parts of a bridge include:

  • Foundation – Structural members used to transfer load to the supporting soil.
  • Substructure – Structural parts that support the horizontal span
  • Superstructure – Structural parts which provide the horizontal span




Limit States and Load Factors


Load factors and load combinations are handled differently in AASHTO. Different loading conditions are represented by Limit States. Some examples are Strength I, Strength III, and Service I. The load factors vary in magnitude depending on which limit state is applied. The load factors are then multiplied by the various types of loads. The Load Factors are found in Tables 3.4.1-1 and 3.4.1-2.




Live Load Distribution


Live load on bridges is not distributed evenly to girders. Live load distribution provides a more appropriate distribution based on girder spacing, deck thickness, type of bridge etc. The applicable cross sections are from Table 4.6.2.2.1-1

Then the appropriate equation on pages 4-37 through 4-45 determines the distribution of load. Be aware of the appropriate mode of failure and whether the beam is interior or exterior





Advanced Statics

3D Statics


Statics in 3 dimensions introduces additional equations of equilibrium due to the third axis. Apply the same basic principles for the sum of the following forces:

FX = 0

FY = 0

FZ = 0

MX = 0

MY = 0

MZ = 0

  • First determine location of origin (0, 0, 0)
  • Determine X, Y, and Z component of all forces
  • Determine moment from each component about each axis
  • Moment about an axis is the perpendicular distance from a force component to that axis
  • Forces parallel to an axis has zero moment about that axis
  • Forces that run through an axis have zero moment about the axis




Moving Loads


  • Moving Loads are most often from Live Load due to traffic
  • Need to analyze position of load to cause the greatest stress
  • Shear in general is greatest when loads are at the support
  • Positive moment in general is greatest with the loads at midspan
  • Negative Moment is greatest with the load cloase to the support




Hinges


Hinges are supports at which there is a zero moment and only an axial and vertical force can be transferred

Hinges are best analyzed by taking free body diagrams to either side of the hinge




Cables


  • Cables carry load only in tension
  • Acts as axial two force tension members
  • Can be analyzed similarly to trusses use the method of joints

Consider the example below:

Determine support reactions by drawing free body diagram of entire system

Then you can take free body diagrams of individual points to determine axial tensions:





Misc. Structural Topics

Bending





Compression






 
 
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